What you need to know about RE Exams


RE1 as well as RE5 Exam Workshops

The RE exams can be a challenge to pass and lots of people take the exams more than once before passing. There is a large amount of course material and Lets Study Training Services offers you a workshop where we take you through the process, by doing mock exams can help you pass your exam.

What examination must I write?

Both the RE5 and RE1 are Level One examinations. RE5 is for Representatives and RE1 for Key Individuals. The RE3 examination is for licence category II candidates.

Exam Costs

The FSB determines the fee. Currently it costs R1226 per exam, also in the case of a re-write.

What preparation material is available?

Please make sure that you first read the FSB’s Preparation Guide to see to it you follow the ideal procedure in preparing.

RE Exams

RE Exams – Both the RE5 and RE1 are Level One exams. RE5 is for Reps and RE1 for Key Individuals. Fully updated resources are available for those requiring access to the legislation applicable to the regulatory examinations. Please make sure that you initially read the FSB’s Preparation Guide to make sure you follow the ideal procedure in preparing. Remember that this exam tests your understanding about the laws applicable to the provision of financial advice and intermediary services. The questions are based on extremely specific qualifying criteria set out in the FSB preparation guide.

RE5 Study Material

RE5 Study Material – The amended requirements contained in the 2017 Determination of Fit and Proper Requirements will impact on the content of the study material for the REs.

RE1 Study Material

RE1 Study Material – It appears that numerous candidates underestimate the significance of correct preparation for this professional examination.

There are two standard documents which candidates need to study in order to ensure success:

The FSB recently updated its Level 1 RE Preparation Guide for Key Individuals and also Reps. Without at least reading through this, candidates have no idea of what to anticipate.

RE1 Exam

RE1 Exam – These regulatory exams form part of the competence requirements, and consist of two levels:

Regulatory examinations Level 1: These regulatory examinations must be completed within 2 years of appointment or approval. People currently in the industry appointed or approved between 2004 and 2009 must complete these regulatory examinations successfully by 31 June 2012. People entering the industry from 2010 must complete these regulatory examinations successfully within two years of appointment / approval.

RE Exams Expense

RE Exams Expense – The RE exam expense is R 1226 per examination as well as for rewrites.

FAIS Examinations

FAIS Examinations – The students that are required to write FAIS examinations are reps that work in the insurance sector as well as provide guidance and/ or intermediary services to clients. The most common professions or work positions for the delegates who are attending the workshops are primarily, Sales Consultants, Client Services Consultants, Claims Advisors, Broker Consultants, Underwriting Managers, Retention Consultants, Branch Managers, Team Leaders, and Key Individuals and Sole Proprietors. The learners are required to rewrite FAIS Regulatory Exams (RE) Level 1 (RE 5 or/and RE 1), if they have not passed

Inseta RE5

Inseta RE5 – The content of these regulatory exams are based on the regulatory structure and the regulatory role of the individual, for instance the FAIS Act, Code of Conduct, FICA and so on. Please refer to BN 105 Annexure 1 for even more detailed information regarding the content. These regulatory exams are mandatory and all representatives and also key individuals are required to complete these regulatory examinations.

What Is RE5 Qualification

What is RE5 qualification – All Representatives, including those employed or mandated by an FSP, who provide a financial service to a client (excluding a person rendering clerical, technical, administrative, legal, accounting or other service in a subsidiary or subordinate capacity which does not require judgment or does not lead to a specific transaction in respect of a financial product in response to general enquiries) are required to write this exam.

Difference Between RE1 and RE5

Difference between RE1 and RE5 – RE1 is a basic exam that applies to all key individuals and sole proprietors in all the Categories. This exam contains 80 questions. All sole proprietors as well as key individuals that are responsible for managing and supervising a company relating to the rendering financial services for FSPs in Category I, II, IIA, III and IV are required to write this exam.

RE5 is all Representatives, consisting of those employed or mandated by an FSP, who render a financial service to a client (excluding a person rendering clerical, technical, administrative, legal, accounting or other service in a subsidiary or subordinate capacity which does not require judgment or does not lead to a specific transaction in respect of a financial product in response to general enquiries) are required to write this exam.

Regulatory Examination

Regulatory Examination – It is accepted worldwide practice and standard to establish professional examinations for professions. The FAIS regulatory examinations are, therefore, not one-of-a-kind.

RE5 Certificate

RE5 certificate – There are daily requests for duplicates of outcomes, or RE1 certificates and RE5 certificates from candidates who mislaid their own. You can download and install these from the website of the company where you wrote the exams.

RE1 Examinations Study Material

RE1 examinations study material – The Inseta website has been redesigned, and students wishing to download and install the preparation material for the regulatory examinations may experience some trouble in finding it.

How To Pass RE5 Exam

How to pass RE5 exam- The first two will be easiest for those who understand their material well. Levels 3 as well as 4 are usually much longer type questions, requiring much more thinking to reach the right answer.

A simple bit of math will certainly reveal that 35 of the 50 questions in the Representative’s examination are taken from levels 1 and 2. This constitutes 70% of the questions.

When it comes to the Key Individual examination, it is 54 of 80 questions, or 67.5% of the questions.

A longer type of question will take more time to read and answer than a shorter one, yet a right answer for either type of question will only score one point. According to the exam tips from the regulator, the following is a guide to the time allocation per type of question:

– Knowledge: ½ – 1 minutes per question

– Comprehension: 1 – 1½ minutes per question

– Application and analysis: 1½ – 2 minutes per question

This is clearly just a basic guide, yet it helps to know where you can save time, and where you are most likely to spend more time.

RE5 Training course

RE5 training course – In truth there is no course for the RE5 qualification. There are however workshops that usually strech over 2 days where you will get the assistance you require to pass your RE5 exam.

RE1 Training course

RE1 training course – In truth there is no course for the RE5 qualification. There are however workshops that usually strech over 2 days where you will get the assistance you require to pass your RE5 exam.

RE Exams Registration

RE exams registration – There are several centers where you can register for the RE exams, the most popular being Moonstone. Some of the workshop providers will also assist you with your registration when attending the workshops.

Book now – https://lets-study.co.za/re1-re5-exam-workshop-application/

RE5 Study Material pdf

RE5 study material pdf – The study material for both RE1 and RE5 is available in pdf format from the INSETA website. When attending a workshop to prepare you for the exams you will most likely receive the printed material.

The Financial Advisory and Intermediary Services Act, 37 of 2002, (“the FAIS Act”), came into effect on 30 September 2004. The objective of the FAIS Act is to:

Protect consumers, and Professionalise the financial services industry.

The Act requires all financial advisors and intermediaries (providers) to meet certain competence requirements. At the time, the competence requirements consisted of experience and qualifications. To aid industry participants, the initial qualification requirements needed to obtain a licence to act as a provider were “reduced” from full qualification requirements to skills programmes (or credit requirements) to help those in the industry that did not have any formal qualification as well as those who had to start with studies as a result of the promulgation of the FAIS Act. The intent was always to gradually increase the qualification requirements to the requirement that providers should have full qualifications.

Consequently thereof, the Decision for Fit and also the Appropriate Needs for Financial Services Providers, 2003, had to be assessed. The FSB started an extremely intensive consultation procedure with the industry regarding the competency requirements. A “blank slate” approach was followed. Simply put, the existing Fit and Proper requirements were set aside completely and industry stakeholders were welcomed to provide input as to what requirements would be suitable, reasonable and “workable for them”. Input was likewise acquired regarding what would be a useful and efficient method to implement the requirements, and what those requirements should be? The consultation procedure with stakeholders begun in October 2006 and continued up until September 2008. The consultation was open to any provider, individual, industry associations, professional body etc. Participants were mostly product experts, professional bodies, industry associations, providers, representatives from larger corporate companies, and even training providers that specialise within the financial services industry.

Regulatory examination — It is accepted worldwide practice and standard to establish professional examinations for professions. The FAIS regulatory examinations are, therefore, not one-of-a-kind. The purpose of the regulatory exam is to establish a minimum standard in regards to the following:

Knowledge and understanding regarding the role and responsibilities of a key individual or a representative under the FAIS Act. Although the FAIS Act has been in operation since 2004, it was generally accepted that the level of understanding, awareness and understanding of the responsibilities enforced by the FAIS Act on providers was lacking. This led to non-compliance with the provisions of the FAIS Act for instance; providers did not provide clients with the needed information as required by the FAIS Act.

Providers are further under the misconception that ensuring compliance with the legislation is the responsibility of the compliance officer. This is not the case– the key individual is accountable|liable to ensure compliance with the FAIS Act and also representatives also have specific responsibilities in respect thereof. The compliance officer is responsible for the monitoring of compliance only.

It was agreed that a once-off regulatory examination should|ought to address the problems referred to above, and would ensure that all providers have a proper understanding of their specific regulatory roles. The examinations would be compulsory for everyone rendering financial services to clients. This was also viewed as part of the objective to professionalise stakeholders in the industry and to have confidence that providers know as well as understand the legislation that governs their industry.

Enrole now – http://re.lets-study.co.za/re-exams-pretoria.html

You can contact us on 0103007916

Reverse Osmosis Water Filters

Reverse Osmosis Water Filters

Bmw M6 GT3 (Walkenhorst Motorsport)_2
Source: Flickr

A reverse osmosis water filter may be what you and your family need in order to remove various items from your drinking water. They can be used for both well water and basic tap water that comes from your faucet. Not only will it taste better but it will be better for you. The amount of impurities in such water can be higher than what you realize. Most people think that as long as their health department hasn’t notified them not to drink it they are going to be find.

A reverse osmosis water filter fits under your sink so it is hidden away. There are some that fit right onto the faucet but they can be unsightly. People also worry about what guests to their home will think if they see such a water device hanging from the end of the faucet. All of the debris are removed from micro filters and unwanted chemicals won’t make their way into the water you drink or that you cook with.

If you live in an area where there are large amounts of mineral deposits, a reverse osmosis water filter is a very good idea. They come with a triple filtering system so you can be sure very little is going to get past it without being removed. Basically this type of water system ensures only what is good for you is going to get into your glass or into your pot.

One thing you do need to be aware of though is most reverse osmosis water filters result in a great volume of water being wasted. That is due to the amount of water it has to get rid of to remove the contaminates. So you should expect to see a slight increase in your water bill with this type of filtering system. Yet if you are already paying for bottled water this will likely save you some money.

A reverse osmosis water filter is very simple to install on your own. It will take two or three hours to complete the process. You can buy a good quality system with a warranty for about $200. There is very little maintenance for this type of water filtering system. Approximatley every three years you will need to put in a new filter membrane. Those run about $50 each.

Carport Design

Carport Design

Summary: From wooden overhangs to brute steel designs to posh aluminum, carports have designs specifically made to provide every situation

From those simple overhangs that the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed for his Usonian Homes, Carports have gained an extensive variety of uses. And surprisingly the name ‘Carport’ still holds.

Carports are still used as car shelters these days. In fact, most now use carports in place of garage; maximizing otherwise wasted space to a smaller and more multipurpose car shelter.

Yes, multipurpose. From tea and coffee breaks to casual reading area, carports have been utilized to afford lounging in open areas. Built to function much like a gazebo, carports are used by modern households to accommodate simple fancies hassle free. Of course a gazebo is still more pleasing aesthetically but the maintenance free afforded only by carports makes it a rather hefty competition to gazebos and gardens.

With these in this effect, canopy carports have gained popularity over functions such as these. Though they are still used as actual car parks since they can be erected fairly easily and quickly, it is not uncommon to see hastily erected canopy carports to accommodate barbeques looming around the corner.

Canopy carports design uses canopy as shelter. The attractive benefit of this carport design is it is readily assembled and disassembled.

Steel carports designs are more of a barn like structure to withstand elements. Since the majority of steel carport users are located in rural areas, naturally steel carport manufacturers supply carport designs that coincide to the needs of their most profitable market. Prairies, farms and ranches with a natural high wind velocity and fickle weather often use steel carports with enclosure on two sides. If not for the legislatives that revolve around carport enclosures, carports within these areas have long ago shifted to totally enclosed sheds.

Aluminum carport designs are popular with modern houses, especially in cities and urban areas. The posh, elegant and slick looks of aluminum carports do compliment the glass and dull concrete of an office or a modern house. Since aluminum is more malleable metal compared to steel, technically speaking, designs are more possible. One aluminum carport design, the Alumawood is an aluminum carport made to simulate the aesthetic look and feel of wooden carports but retains the durability properties with metal carports.

The wooden carport design is the most expensive. It also needs a lot of maintenance, just like the rest of the house. Some houses, especially the Usonian Houses made by the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright sport the wooden carport design, though Frank Lloyd’s carport was more of a house extension than a separate house accessory.

Though there are minimal restrictions in building a carport, carport designs are strictly regulated. Article defines a garage as a roofed enclosure for parking cars which has more than 60% of its perimeter enclosed by walls, doors or windows. Most carports have no walls, some only have two of the sides enclosed, not reaching the 60% mark of garages. In addition, Article deals with the construction requirements for the exposing building face of detached garages but makes no reference to carports. Both articles clearly point out that there are minimal restrictions in building a carport.

All about Carports

All about Carports

Toledo Basement Repair - This is After Repair!
Source: Flickr

Summary: Read on and get a glimpse on the carport’s colorful history.

Do you know how uncomfortable it is to ride your car after its being park under the sun? Have you been pissed off for having made to shovel a pile of snow accumulated on the top of your car when your 30 minutes late?

Cars are made to withstand grueling elements. Since the earlier cars that where released in the pre-war era, cars have evolve to become more endurable and withstanding. Still, they are not built like tanks to survive even the harshest elements. Protection is still needed.

Garages were conceived to address this problem. After all, what could provide a better protection than a four walled structure? Garages also plays somewhat significant role in homes: it doubles as an attic, storage space, or bodega. Consequently more houses that own a car own a garage. But what about those homes that doesn’t have a garage. They do the next best thing. They leave their cars in the open.

So when the radical American architect Frank Lloyd Wright conceptualizes the Usonian Homes, garage-less homeowners did lots of thanking. Frank Lloyd Wright’s creations, the “Usonian Homes”, were typically small, single story dwellings without garage. In place were large cantilevered overhangs that act as a protection for vehicles. And Frank Lloyd Wright called this overhang “Carport”.

Garage-less homeowners absorbed this concept swiftly. They copied the ‘carport’ and integrated it into their homes, even those who did have garage. In a metropolitan area where space is a big factor and posh, neat and elegant homes were warmly received, garage no longer was the most welcoming house improvement. The glory days of garages were coming to an end and in place were cool looking and snug Carports. And carports seeded a number of uses, thanks to its versatile build, it also doubles as a veranda, a tea house, or just a place where one can laze on a sunny day. But they still continue to call it carport.

To date, carports come in several constructs: wood, steel, aluminum, or prefabricated insulated polystyrene foam core panels wrapped in steel or aluminum. Each has its own pros and cons. Though the weakest is wood since it is predisposed to wood warping, chipping and rot, it is by far the most versatile since it can easily match the homes and can be fitted with installations rather easily. Steel is the cheapest and the strongest by far but doesn’t come with designs. Most uses of steel carports are on barns and ranches where decorations are negligible.

A carport is an effective and cost friendly solution for storing or protecting any vehicles. It also cost only a fraction of the price needed for a garage. It provides more ventilation and takes considerably less space. And what more, most carports sold, especially online are do-it-yourself projects that takes only a couple of days to complete.

Lets Keep It Clean

Lets Keep It Clean

Reverse Osmosis Water Purifier Removes Smallest Bacteria

One of the best and safest ways to purify your drinking water is to use the reverse osmosis water purifier. It removes even the smallest particles from your drinking water, most of these particles are smaller than the eye can see.

Reverse Osmosis was developed by the U.S. government to desalinate sea water for ships and submarines. One of the major advantages of reverse osmosis water purifiers is that they do not use any chemicals such as chlorine or iodine and do not require frequent filter changes or cleaning.

The secret of reverse osmosis is its abality to filter out even the smallest of particles . The human hair is about 1 micron, however disease causing bacteria is much smaller, typically between about .01 and .001 micron. A reverse osmosis water purifier utilizes layers of membranes, rolled into a cylinder with effective filtering to .0001 microns.

Due to the small size of the membranes it takes longer for the water to filter. The typical single-family home use will usually need at least 50 gallons of water per day and achieving that capacity will depend on the length and number of the membrane sheets within the filter. You can get financing to purchase a system.

Typically a larger quantity of shorter membranes allow water to pass through more quickly while fewer sheets of longer membranes may still increase the time it take to filter the water. Units mounted under the kitchen sink are excellent alternatives to larger whole house units. They will allow for filtering all your drinking and cooking water while reducing the expense of filtering all your water.

Water in Water out

Temperature and pressure of the water flowing into the system will affect the filtering capacity or the reverse osmosis purifier. Industry recommendations call for water pressure of 50 psi @ 77 degrees Fahrenheit. Since most home water supplies do not fall into this category, most reputable reverse osmosis water purifier suppliers will not usually guarantee a specific claim as the amount of water that a system will produce daily.

The life of the membrane filters is an added advantage of the reverse osmosis water purifier. Other types of water filtration systems require a new filter between two and four weeks, depending on the type and density of the impurities in the water. Most reverse osmosis water purifier systems have a self-cleaning ability that uses unfiltered water to wash over the membranes, vanishing collected impurities into its drainage system. Of course one of the drawbacks to this is a lot of water goes to waste, this may or may not matter depending on if you are paying for the water you are filtering.


Due to the fact the impurities are washed down the drain and you are not trying to pass water through a filter that is already loaded down with contaminants your water will be more consistent and cleaner.

R-O units can easily be found at all the major home centers and online and are a worthwhile and healthy investment.


Photovoltaic panel to obtain free electricity to your house

Solar collectors on the other hand, are a system of liquid filled tubes. Since this post talks about “finest solar panels” let’s get back to generating electrical power out of sunlight and save solar collectors for another article.

If you are planning the purchase of a total solar panel system or if you are purchasing parts to assemble your very own solar panels you want to make certain to buy the best photovoltaic panels for your private function. This short article installs some standard information on photovoltaic panels to help you make the ideal decision.

Solar panels Pretoria East (photovoltaic panels, photovoltaic modules) transform shortwave radiation, e.g. parts of the sunshine, into electrical power. They include interconnected solar cells which are protected by a variety of different products. The surface area is transparent and the solar panel is framed, mainly in an aluminum frame.

Something right at the beginning, there is nothing like “the world’s best solar panels for everybody.” It makes a huge distinction whether you want to create electrical energy for your house as well as feed surplus capacity in the power grid or if you want to charge a car battery once in a while. And producing warm water from a solar setup needs in fact a total various technology. In narrower sense those so called “thermal solar batteries” or “solar batteries” are not even correct photovoltaic panels. Exactly what’s the distinction?

Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment System

Reverse Osmosis Water Treatment System

Disagreeable taste, foul odor and undesirable color are just few of the unwanted things we don’t want our drinking water to have. In as much as we want to keep our drinking water safe, the cost of water treatment technology is escalating. It is true that there are plenty of water treatment procedures and equipment available in the market but only few are proven to be safe and effective. Those that have gain positive reviews are becoming more expensive each day.

One of the newest methods in treating water is reverse osmosis water treatment system. This method has demonstrated the ability to lessen the content of substances that naturally occurs on water that changes its taste, color and smell. These substances can also cause the water to be unhealthy. All these water problems are eliminated if reverse osmosis water treatment system is utilized.

Reverse osmosis water treatment system is generally utilized to reduce the number of solid particles that might form scale in the long run. The chemicals that cause scale formation like nitrate, sodium, and sulfate are thus removed from the water. The presence of carbon filter in reverse osmosis water treatment system can help diminish the presence of “soluble organic compounds” like pesticides, chloroform and other unnecessary organic compounds.

Reverse osmosis water treatment technology is also considered as super filtration water treatment method because the process includes the passing of water into a permeable membrane with ultra small orifices, that can only allow water molecules to pas through it. The larger compounds found in water are screened. Other reverse osmosis filters use electric current in eliminating unwanted chemicals.

A simple and ordinary reveres osmosis water treatment system typically include particle filter which inhibits solid particles and other chemicals to pass through; membrane component, which acts by rejecting certain contaminants from passing through; Storage tank, where the filtered water are kept; post-filter, which to remove undesirable taste and any form of residue that are present after the treatment; and the delivery tap where treated water are stored.

This ultimate water treatment system is relatively costly but the benefits obtained from this system are much higher than its cost. A reverse osmosis water treatment assembly can cost up to $300 to as much as $3000 depending on the quality and the size of the unit. Other cost would include regular replacement of the membrane, which is about $100-$200 while the cartridges for the filter is priced at $50.

Reverse osmosis water treatment system is practically suggested for household use only. Any attempt to utilize the system might prove to be much expensive and impractical. Nevertheless reverse osmosis water treatment is and effective method it ensuring a safe and clean drinking water.

Want to Stop a Third of the Energy Loss from Your Home?

Want to Stop a Third of the Energy Loss from Your Home?

Many people don’t insulate their basement walls because they mistakenly believe that the soil outside does the insulating for them.
Unfortunately, soil is not a good insulator and heat loss from your basement can account for over one third of the total heat loss from your home.

Done properly, basement insulation will not only reduce heat loss, but it will make your basement warmer, drier and much more comfortable.

There are two main ways to insulate your basement – interior insulation and exterior insulation.

For interior basement insulation, you can use any of the main types of home interior insulation, including fibreglass batts, rigid foam board and spray foam. Having a metal or wood frame of studs will help support the insulation and give you a place to attach drywall or panelling.

You should install a moisture barrier over the bare wall before adding the stud frame and insulation. Also, add a vapour barrier over the installed stud frame and insulation before adding drywall and panelling.

For exterior basement insulation, you must excavate the soil around your home so you can get to the outside surfaces of your basement walls. Cover the entire surface of the wall with a layer of waterproofing material before adding rigid insulation. Metal flashing and a protective cover must be installed over the insulation to make sure moisture does not get between the insulation and the basement wall.

Before installing any kind of basement insulation, you need to fix any cracks, leaks or other moisture problems. Moisture can seriously damage your finished basement and the problem is far more difficult and expensive to fix after a basement is finished.

On the inside, moisture and vapour barriers will help reduce condensation, but they do not prevent water leaking through wall cracks. A basement waterproofing system is the best way to make sure you do not have moisture problems from any source.

On the outside, install a drainage system when insulating the wall. Again, waterproofing your basement will protect you from water damage.

The trained basement waterproofing professionals at Clarke Basement Systems know how to make your basement dry and get it ready for your basement insulation – inside and out.

PA Home Inspector

PA Home Inspector

They say a PA home inspector charges around $300 to $700 dollars for a mere visual assessment. Certainly, you can afford not to pay that much for something that anybody else can do. Or can you?

There are many reasons why you shouldn’t hire a PA home inspector to examine your potential new home. And yet, you still probably should. Because as many reasons as you may have NOT to seek a professional home inspection, there are twice as many reasons why you should.

So why do you need to hire a PA home inspector?

The answer is very simple. Your house is the single most important investment most individuals will ever make. And because of that, you simply cannot afford taking any unnecessary risks with it, especially if there is a way to avoid them.

More and more home buyers now are beginning to understand the wisdom of having PA home inspector perform a thorough inspection of a home prior to making a commitment to purchase. For prospective home buyers, a PA home inspector’s professional services prove to be a positive and even educational experience. What better person to learn from regarding everything that pertains to your potential new home than someone who is trained and educated to know all there is to know about it? While a PA home inspector may not be able to diagnose all problems about construction, he can certainly give you an overview of what problems you ought to take care now and what issues you should let pass for a few months.

An impartial inspection by a professional PA home inspector, especially someone who is a Registered Home Inspector (RHI) will provide a large measure of protection from unpleasant surprises. Not only that, it will also allow you to make an informed and intelligent decision about your purchase.

The Purposes of an Inspection

The primary purpose of a home inspection is to determine the condition of a property at the time of purchase. A PA home inspector’s job, therefore, is to identify as much as possible all the problems, symptoms of problems, potential problems, and all other aspects of a home. He is not restricted to merely pointing out the identifiable problems, but he may also diagnose a future problem based on what he sees at the time of the inspection. Printer for hire Johannesburg.

The Parts of an Inspection

The PA home inspector is required to inspect all the major components of a home. These major components include those located in the exterior and interior.

The exterior portion typically includes:

* Slope, grading, and drainage of the property
* Foundation and exterior walls
* Porches and decks
* Windows, doors, headers, and sills
* Fascia, soffits, and eaves troughs
* Roof, flashings, vents, and chimneys
* Garage, carport, and outbuildings

While the interior includes:

* Foundation walls, basement floor, posts and beams
* Waterproofing, moisture penetration, wood rot, etc.
* Electrical service and wiring
* Pluming supply, waste drainage, and fixtures
* Heating, air conditioning (summer only) and ventilation
* Floors, walls, ceilings, doors and windows
* Attic insulation and ventilation

KEYWORD: “PA Home Inspector” = 10
DENSITY: 1.9 %

Tapping Our Water Supplies

Tapping Our Water Supplies

#2959B King Tuff - The Other
Source: Flickr

H2o. Two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen, are all that make up the most important substance to all living things on earth.
Water, as it is more commonly known, has a slight hint of blue in its most pure form and is known to be the most universal solvent. In its three states, water takes on many different forms: water vapour and clouds in the sky, waves and icebergs in the sea, glaciers and aquifers on land to name a few.
Earth’s water is 97% saltwater and undrinkable by humans. The other 3% is freshwater or potable water but of which, 2% is frozen in glaciers and polar icecaps. Our bodies are made of about 65% water making it vital our health. To function properly the body requires between one and seven litres of water per day to avoid dehydration.
By means of evaporation, precipitation and run-off, water is constantly changing from one state to another, in what is know as the hydrologic cycle. Run-off is the flow of water after rain which recharges ground water or aquifers. In many countries water is becoming scarcer as human population in those places increases, and its availability is a major social and economic concern.
Increasing pollutants in water are also becoming a greater cause for concern as more contaminants, such as fertilizers and chemical waste, are found in our water supplies.
Gone are the days, in many developed nations, where municipal tap water is considered safe for drinking.
Here are a just few commonly found, unwanted contaminants:
Lead – Found in water supplies with lead solder or pipes, especially when water is soft or corrosive. While lead is never desirable, concentrations greater than 15 micrograms per litre (15 ug/L also known as parts per billion or ppb) can cause brain, nerve, and kidney damage, especially in young children.
Nitrate Nitrogen – Nitrate nitrogen is commonly used lawn and agricultural fertilizers. It is also a chemical formed when decomposing waste materials, such as manure or sewage.
Fluoride – Added to water to reduce tooth decay but controversy surrounds exists over its benefits and dangers. In low quantities fluoride is use commonly in health applications but levels found in water should be monitored and known.
Bacterial and parasite
Cryptosporidium – is a parasite commonly found in lakes and rivers, especially when the water is contaminated with sewage and animal wastes.
Escherichia coli – (usually abbreviated to E. coli) is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of warm-blooded animals and are necessary for the proper digestion of food. Its presence in groundwater is a common indicator of fecal contamination.
Bottled Water
Today, because of a much increased awareness of water contaminants, more often people are drinking bottled water, or filtering water for consumption. Bottled water can be categorised into three sources:
Spring water – Derived from an underground aquifer from which water flows naturally to the earth’s surface. Spring water must be collected only at the spring or through a borehole tapping the underground formation feeding the spring. If some external force is used to collect the water through a borehole, the water must have the same composition and quality as the water that naturally flows to the surface.
Mineral water – Water from an underground source that contains at least 250 parts per million total dissolved solids. Minerals and trace elements must come from the source of the underground water. They cannot be added later.
Purified water – normally comes from municipal sources – in other words – the tap. Municipal water is usually treated before it is bottled.
As can be seen, there arises many questions to the authenticity of bottled water label advertising. If you drink bottled water, always read the small print to see where it came from or what it “claims” to be.
Another way of removing unwanted contaminants in water is by filtration.
Filtering and Purification
Filtering and purification don’t need to much explaining as to what they do but what must be pointed out, is the many different types and their effectiveness against different contaminants.
Boiling – Water heated to its boiling point for one minute kills micro organisms that normally live in water at room temperature.
Carbon filtering : Carbon with a high surface area due to its mode of preparation adsorbs many compounds, including some toxic compounds. Water passed through activated charcoal removes contaminants.
Distilling : – Involves the boiling of water producing water vapour, leaving behind contaminants. The water vapour then rises to a cooled surface where it condenses back into a liquid to be collected. Although this method does not completely purify, it produces 99% pure water.
Reverse osmosis : Pressure is applied to contaminated water forcing it through a semi-permeable membrane. Reverse osmosis is said to be the most thorough method of large-scale water purification.
There are many more water purification methods which are also effective but depending on which geographic location they are used, each one must be studied before making a decision on the best one.
Earth’s water, more than ever is becoming an important subject, especially when 1 in 6 people on the planet do not have access to safe drinking water.
Maybe before studying water on Mars, we should take a closer look at what is happening to our own – right here on earth.